Category Archives: Heart Failure

Total Body Fat Vs. Belly Fat in Breast Cancer Risk

I came across this very interesting study through a Medical News Today article (link below). The paper manuscript itself is free, but comes across as a little difficult to read on the downloadable PDF version , because of the way it appears to be output by the journal. However, it is always good to be able to access the full paper, and not simply the summary.

The premise

Among several risk factors, body fat is a breast cancer risk. There apparently have been contentions about where specific biomarkers that indicate breast cancer are produced, with some previous studies. This study has shown that overall weight loss is more beneficial in terms of breast cancer biomarker production reduction, rather than focusing on belly fat alone.

The current study

The current study is limited to post-menopausal women. Conducted in the Netherlands, 243 overweight women were recruited. They lost 5 – 6kg over a period of 16 weeks. A set of biomarkers, indicative of sex hormones, leptin and inflammation were compared before and after the weight loss. The fat changes themselves were measured using X-ray and MRI scans.

The latter appears to be important. The MNT article includes a statement that this study is different than previous ones that used waist measurements. I can see this being quite an important difference. X-rays and MRI scans definitely appear to be more fastidious methods of assessing fat changes, specific to a body region.

Results

Increased belly fat, according to Dr. Evelyn Monninkhof, the lead in the study indicates, increases the risk for several chronic diseases, independent of total body fat. She indicates however, that sex hormones, are more affected by total body fat and not just localized fat, as concluded from the study.

She also points that their next steps is to look at how to reduce levels of total fat and abdominal fat. This said, it appears that women, especially those postmenopausal and those approaching menopause can benefit from exercise and nutritional changes that lead to total fat loss, and hopefully, abdominal fat loss along the way. It is always important to contact licensed medical and/or nutritional professionals when considering exercise and/or dietary changes.

References:

  1. The MNT Article: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/317498.php
  2. The Endocrinology Paper: http://erc.endocrinology-journals.org/content/early/2017/05/16/ERC-16-0490.abstract?sid=9f3c9977-0e81-4583-bdf5-07b3f182f911
  3. Image Courtesy, Pexels: https://www.pexels.com/photo/woman-with-umbrella-on-beach-247304/

Early Menopause and lack of child birth increase risks for Heart Failure

Heart Health in Women has many risk factors associated with it. A new study, another retrospective one, examined 28,516 women, who were enrolled as part of the Women’s Health Initiative (link below), a great effort that is now providing invaluable statistics that can be used to identify root causes and create awareness.

Eliminating all other known factors, such as BMI, smoking etc., two new factors popped up:

  1. Early Menopause
  2. Lack of pregnancy

They also identified that for every year’s worth of delay in menopause initiation, a woman’s heart failure rate drops by 1%. The other risk is caused by nulliparity, or lack of pregnancy. I am quoting directly here:

The latest study also found that women who had never given birth were 2.75 times more likely to have diastolic heart failure than women who had children.

The study authors did not establish a direct causal link, but they were able to identify a statistical link. The lead author did mention that polycystic ovary syndrome (a blog post for another day) has been known to increase cardiovascular risk. Diastolic Heart Failure happens when the heart is not able to pump enough blood to the body.

Study Limitations

Retrospective studies, especially ones based on efforts such as the Women’s Health Initiative, where large amount of data can be a treasure trove of information, just as this study has been. However, there are limitations. The current study only shows an association, not a causation, and no clues on the actual causation.

Such limitations however can be overcome by future studies, that focus on trying to identify causes.

Mitigating Circumstances

The more causes that are identified for the risk of heart failure, the better. Instead of considering these things in a negative light, women and doctors can better prepare ahead, taking precautionary measures ensuring a long and fruitful lifespan. It is also true that women in this century, prefer to make their life choices and therefore, knowing that avoiding pregnancy means a need to plan and prepare ahead for optimal health is always very good!

References:

  1. The study (sits behind a paywall): http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0735109717367694
  2. The Guardian Article summarizing the study: https://www.theguardian.com/science/2017/may/15/earlier-menopause-puts-women-at-greater-risk-of-heart-failure-study-shows
  3. The Women’s Health Initiative: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/whi/
  4. Nulliparity: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/nulliparity
  5. A simple review of early menopausehttp://www.webmd.com/menopause/guide/premature-menopause-symptoms#1
  6. Diastolic Heart Failure: http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/heart-failure/tc/diastolic-heart-failure-topic-overview#1
  7. Image Courtesy, Pexelshttps://www.pexels.com/photo/sunset-hands-love-woman-5390/